LGBT discrimination, harassment & violence

A photo of a person with purple hair at a protest/rally, wearing a transgender flag as a cape and holding a protest sign, written on cardboard, that reads "stop hurting us." There are other people marching as well, and they are at an intersection that has a green light. They are marching in London.

A quantitative comparative approach

Peer-reviewed research by: Dr Sait Bayrakdar and Dr Andrew King

When it comes to self-reported encounters with discrimination, harassment, and violence from 2SLGBTQQIA+ individuals and communities, experiences vary. In this article, the authors show how different experiences for LGBT individuals track across three different countries (Germany, Portugal and the UK). Here, we see how social location–socioeconomic class, age, gender, age, and disability, for example–as well as their geographic location, may play a role in shaping those experiences.

As the research draws on survey data from 2012, it highlights the importance of noting how and when data is collected. For example, “LGBT” data is limited in its capacity to capture diverse experiences across 2SLGBTQQIA+ communities. Nonetheless, the authors hope to shed insight into understandings related to diversity and in/equality. Here is the abstract: 


This article examines the incidents of discrimination, harassment and violence experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) individuals in Germany, Portugal and the UK. Using a large cross-national survey and adopting an intra-categorical intersectional approach, it documents how the likelihood of experiencing discrimination, harassment and violence changes within LGBT communities across three national contexts.

Moreover, it explores how individual characteristics are associated with the likelihood of experiencing such incidents. The results show that trans people are more at risk compared to cisgender gay, lesbian and bisexual individuals to experience discrimination, harassment and violence. However, other factors, such as socioeconomic resources, also affect the likelihood of individuals experiencing such incidents.

The three countries in our study show some nuanced differences in likelihood levels of experiencing discrimination, harassment and violence with regard to differential categories of sexual orientation and gender identity.

Click here to read the full open-access article, published online in January 2023 in the journal Current Sociology (originally published 2021).

Full Reference //

Bayrakdar, S., & King, A. (2023). LGBT discrimination, harassment and violence in Germany, Portugal and the UK: A quantitative comparative approach. Current Sociology, 71(1), 152–172.

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

Knowledge Stitch amplifies open-access peer-reviewed academic research. If you have research you would like readers to check out, click here to suggest your work.

Leave a Reply

Scroll to Top